Code Help

How to use regular expressions and extract all email addresses from a text file.

Basics of Regular expression

**Example : ** Regular expression for an email address :
^([a-zA-Z0-9_-.]+)@([a-zA-Z0-9_-.]+).([a-zA-Z]{2,5})$

The above regular expression can be used for checking if a given set of characters is an email address or not.

How to write regular expression?

  • Repeaters : * , + and { } :
    These symbols act as repeaters and tell the computer that the preceding character is to be used for more than just one time.
  • The asterisk symbol ( * ):
    It tells the computer to match the preceding character (or set of characters) for 0 or more times (upto infinite). Example : The regular expression ab*c will give ac, abc, abbc,
    abbbc….ans so on
  • The Plus symbol ( + ):
    It tells the computer to repeat the preceding character (or set of characters) for atleast one or more times(upto infinite). Example : The regular expression ab+c will give abc, abbc,
    abbc, … and so on.
  • The curly braces {…}:
    It tells the computer to repeat the preceding character (or set of characters) for as many times as the value inside this bracket. Example : {2} means that the preceding character is to be repeated 2
    times, {min,} means the preceding character is matches min or more
    times. {min,max} means that the preceding character is repeated at
    least min & at most max times.
  • Wildcard – ( . )
    The dot symbol can take place of any other symbol, that is why it
    is called the wildcard character. Example :
    The Regular expression .* will tell the computer that any character
    can be used any number of times.
  • Optional character – ( ? )
    This symbol tells the computer that the preceding character may
    or may not be present in the string to be matched. Example :
    We may write the format for document file as – “docx?”
    The ‘?’ tells the computer that x may or may not be
    present in the name of file format.
  • The caret ( ^ ) symbol: _Setting position for match :_tells the computer that the match must start at the beginning of the string or line. Example : ^\d{3} will match with patterns like “901” in “901-333-“.
  • The dollar ( $ ) symbol
    It tells the computer that the match must occur at the end of the string or before \n at the end of the line or string. Example : -\d{3}$ will match with patterns like “-333” in “-901-333”.
  • Character Classes
    A character class matches any one of a set of characters. It is used to match the most basic element of a language like a letter, a digit, space, a symbol etc. /s : matches any whitespace characters such as space and tab
    /S : matches any non-whitespace characters
    /d : matches any digit character
    /D : matches any non-digit characters
    /w : matches any word character (basically alpha-numeric)
    /W : matches any non-word character
    /b : matches any word boundary (this would include spaces, dashes, commas, semi-colons, etc)
  • [set_of_characters] – Matches any single character in set_of_characters. By default, the match is case-sensitive. Example : [abc] will match characters a,b and c in any string. [^set_of_characters] – Negation: Matches any single character that is not in set_of_characters. By default, the match is case sensitive. Example : [^abc] will match any character except a,b,c . [first-last]Character range: Matches any single character in the range from first to last. Example : [a-zA-z] will match any character from a to z or A to Z.
  • *The Escape Symbol : * If you want to match for the actual ‘+’, ‘.’ etc characters, add a backslash( \ ) before that character. This will tell the computer to treat the following character as a search character and consider it for matching pattern. Example : \d+[+-x*]\d+ will match patterns like “2+2”
    and “3*9” in “(2+2) * 3*9”.
  • Grouping Characters ( ) A set of different symbols of a regular expression can be grouped together to act as a single unit and behave as a block, for this, you need to wrap the regular expression in the parenthesis( ). Example : ([A-Z]\w+) contains two different elements of the regular
    expression combined together. This expression will match any pattern
    containing uppercase letter followed by any character.
  • Vertical Bar ( | ) :
    Matches any one element separated by the vertical bar (|) character. Example : th(e|is|at) will match words – the, this and that.
  • \number :
    Backreference: allows a previously matched sub-expression(expression captured or enclosed within circular brackets ) to be identified subsequently in the same regular expression. \n means that group enclosed within the n-th bracket will be repeated at current position. Example : ([a-z])\1 will match “ee” in Geek because the character
    at second position is same as character at position 1 of the match.
  • Comment : (?# comment) –
    Inline comment: The comment ends at the first closing parenthesis. Example : \bA(?#This is an inline comment)\w+\b # [to end of line] : X-mode comment. The comment starts at an unescaped # and continues to the end of the line. Example : (?x)\bA\w+\b#Matches words starting with A

# Python program to extract emails From text
    # the String By Regular Expression. 
      
    # Importing module required for regular 
    # expressions 
    import re  
    
    s =  open("test.txt",'r',encoding = 'utf-8')
    
    
    contents = s.read()
    
    # \S matches any non-whitespace character 
    # @ for as in the Email 
    # + for Repeats a character one or more times 
    lst = re.findall('[^,;\s]+@[^,;\s]+', contents)     
      
    # Printing of List 
    print(lst) 

Subscribe
Notify of
guest
0 Comments
Inline Feedbacks
View all comments

Pin It on Pinterest